BEFORE

AFTER


BEFORE
placement of a crown
there was significant tooth decay



AFTER removal of decay, and placement of a new crown


BEFORE


AFTER

 

Restorative Dentistry
Dental caries (tooth decay) is one of the most prevalent diseases affecting humans, and the greatest portion of the dentist's time and efforts is expended on treating dental decay and its consequences. In addition to caries, teeth can be damaged by trauma, erosion, and abrasion. Restorative dentistry encompasses efforts to conserve and restore decayed, defective, missing, and traumatically injured teeth.

Significant advances have been made in the practice of restorative dentistry. Development of high-speed, air-driven turbines combined with rotary cutting instruments fashioned from diamonds and ultrahard steel permits the rapid removal of tooth structure with little discomfort to the patient. In addition, many new materials for restorations and impression taking have become available. Especially important is the availability of composite resins which have sufficient strength to withstand biting and chewing pressures.

Seven branches of specialization are recognized by the American Dental Association: oral surgery, orthodontics, pedodontics, periodontics, prosthodontics, oral pathology, and public health dentistry. Other subspecialties such as oral medicine, dental radiology, and periodontal prosthetics exist but are not recognized.

Oral Surgery
Treats diseases and abnormalities of the maxillofa-cial region by surgical means. Oral surgeons treat a wide variety of problems by removing teeth, reducing bone fractures, removing cysts, tumors, and growths, and correcting congenital anomalies and malformation of the structures of the maxillofacial region.

Orthodontists deal with abnormalities in tooth position and jaw relationships that result in facial disharmony and malfunction. The objective of orthodontic treatment is to establish normal occlusion and facial harmony. The teeth are repositioned and the jaws modified through the use of mechanical force applied with fixed or removable appliances. Successful treatment results in normal shape and expression of the mouth and lips, aids in enunciation and the sounding of words, and permits proper mastication.

Pedodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with the detection, prevention, and treatment of oral and dental diseases and abnormalities in children. The deciduous or primary teeth are very small and have shapes which differ from those of adult teeth; special procedures and materials are required for their conservation and restoration.

Periodontics is the branch of dentistry devoted to the study, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the tissues supporting the teeth: gingiva (gum tissue), alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and cementum. Periodontal diseases include gingivitis, periodontitis (sometimes called pyorrhea), primary and secondary occlusal traumatism, gingival hyperplasia, and periodontal atrophy. Several types of anaerobic gram-negative microorganisms are thought to be associated with chronic periodontitis. See also Periodontal disease.

Prosthodontics is the branch of dentistry devoted to the construction and replacement of oral structures with artificial substitutes. The replacement of teeth and other oral structures is necessitated by congenital abnormalities, loss of teeth from disease or trauma, and destruction of teeth or jaws or other parts of the mouth by surgical management of neoplasms or trauma.

Oral pathology is concerned with the detection and diagnosis of the diseases of the teeth, oral cavity, and jaws, and also with the oral manifestations of systemic diseases. See also Pathology.

Public health dentistry is defined as the science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts. It comprises research, education, prevention, diagnosis, prescription, treatment of problems related to dentistry, and evaluation of community dental care.

 

Dr. Li is a member of American Dental Association (ADA) ,
California Dental Association(CDA).




 





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